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For a history page I have posted some DCPA/FEMA documents with Civil Defense History Information.

Thank you to Susan Smith at Minnetrista in Indiana for this document and many others!


Washington, D.C. 20301

Booklet is transcribed below. I don't have a PDF file available for this yet.
DCPA Booklet 1975

Compiled by Mary U. Harris, Information Services, DCPA, February 7, 1975, with the help of Carol Wanner, White House Office Library, formerly the library of Office of Emergency Preparedness and predecessor agencies, including the National Security Resources Board (NSRB) and the Office for Emergency Management, Executive Office of the President, within which the World War II Office of Civilian Defense was established....Reprinted July, 1, 1975 with additional "events."
August 29, 1916
Council of National Defense created by act of Congress (39 Stat. 649; 50 U.S.C. ch.l). Composed of the Secre- taries of War (Newton D. Baker, Chairman), Navy, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor, Council was charged with coordination of industries and resources for the national security and welfare, and with creation of relations ren- dering possible in time of need immediate concentration and utilization of resources of the Nation.
October 11, 1916
Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense appointed by the President; composed of seven members, each chosen for special knowledge in one of the following fields: transportation and communications, manufacturing and industrial relations, supplies, raw materials, minerals and metals, engineering and education, labor, medicine and sanitation.
April 6, 1917
War declared by Congress. . . . Council of National Defense established State Council Section to guide growth and work of State defense councils.
April 9, 1917
Council Chairman requested all State Governors to establish councils of defense. Such councils were organized in every State, and by November 11, 1918, local units numbered 182,000.
April 21, 1917
Council appointed a Woman's Committee to coordinate and stimulate war activities of Nation's women.
November 11, 1918
Armistice resulted in rapid dissolution of State and local defense councils.
December 2, 1918
In response to the United States Employment Service, Council of National Defense adopted resolution asking State and local defense councils to keep organizations intact to assist Federal agencies in meeting postwar adjustments.
May 25, 1940
Office for Emergency Management established within Executive Office of the President by administrative order, in accordance with Executive Order 8248 of September 8, 1939. OEM had certain stated functions performed under direction of the Liaison Officer for Emergency Management. (OEM, primarily a framework within which various civilian war agencies were established, is now inactive.)
May 29, 1940
President approved regulation of Council of National Defense that Advisory Commission provided for in sec. 2 of act of Aug. 29, 1916 (39 Stat 649) shall be composed of an Adviser on Industrial Production; an Adviser on Industrial Materials; an Adviser on Employment; an Adviser on Farm Products; an Adviser on Price Stabilization; and an Adviser on Consumer Protection. This was the beginning of the National Defense Program of WW II. Realignment of relationships necessitated by expansion of the program decentralized the Advisory Commission by merging its divi- sions with other newly created national defense units. Agencies which evolved from the Advisory Comission, with the exception of Office for Agricultural War Relations and Office of Price Administration, became units of Office for Emergency Management.
August 2, 1940
Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense appointed by the President, and State Governors advised to reestablish defense councils.
August 5, 1940
Establishment of Division of State and Local Cooperation by Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense announced.
November 1, 1940
First regional conference on civil defense held in New York City; followed by conferences in New Orleans, Salt Lake City, Chicago, and Memphis.
December 1940
Drafts of model law sent to States for consideration of legislature with a view to securing uniformity of civil defense organization on the State level.
February 24, 1941
President asked Congress to appropriate $150,000,000 "for the purpose of providing community facilities made necessary by defense activities." Division of State and Local Cooperation helped to sponsor the community facilities bill, which became known as the Lanham Act.
May 20, 1941
Office of Civilian Defense established within Office for Emergency Management by EO 8757, to assure effective coordination of Federal relations with State and local governments engaged in furtherance of war programs; to provide for necessary cooperation with State and local governments with respect to measures for adequate protection of civilian population in war emergencies; and to facilitate participation by all persons in war programs. . . . Mayor Fiorello La Guardia of New York City named as Director, serving on volunteer basis without compensation.
June 20, 1941
Executive Order 8799 amended EO 8757 to provide for a wider and more effective functioning of the Volunteer Participation Committee by increasing its membership from 20 to 45.
June 28, 1941
Lanham Act approved by Congress (five weeks after Division of State and Local Cooperation was supplanted by OCD).
June 30, 1941
First training course given at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. (These courses continued weekly thereafter.)
July 5, 1941
Emergency Medical Services established with representative of U.S. Public Health Service as Chief Medical Officer. EMS was responsible for establishment of necessary emergency medical facilities in communities throughout the country, including organization of emergency field units and casualty stations.
July 10, 1941
OCD established nine regional offices: Boston, New York City, Baltimore, Atlanta, Cleveland, Chicago, Omaha, San Antonio (later Dallas), and San Francisco.
July 16, 1941
Executive Order 8822 amended EO 8757 to include American Red Cross among organizations invited to designate representatives to serve as members of the Board for Civilian
Protection in OCD.
July 24, 1941
Official CD insignia adopted by OCD; included the basic CD insigne and 15 distinctive identification symbols for volunteer workers: Air Raid Warden, Auxiliary Police, Bomb Squad, Auxiliary Firemen, Fire Watcher, Road Repair Crew, Decontamination Corps, Staff Corps, Rescue Party, Medical Corps, Nurses Aides Corps, Messenger, Drivers Corps, Emergency Food and Housing, Demolition and Clearance Crew. The insignia were developed by Charles T. Coiner, consultant on design to Division of Information, Office for Emergency Management, in collaboration with Col. Walter B. Burn, an OCD staff member.
August 1941
During that month "The United States Citizens Defense Corps" was published. It gave the first complete and coordinated plan for local organization of civilian defense, and was the prototype of all following CD organizations.
September 22, 1941
Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt appointed Assistant Director, OCD, heading Volunteer Participation activities, to administer the nonprotective aspects of civilian defense. She reported November 1, 1941, and resigned February 20, 1942.
October 7, 1941
Official CD insigne patented (U.S. Letters Patent No. D-129,797) by Col. Walter P. Burn, who assigned rights to Government. (CD insigne continued by Federal Civil Defense Administration under Public Law 920, the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950.)
October 15, 1941
Physical Fitness Division established under direction of John B. Kelly, with headquarters in Philadelphia. Also during October, OCD initiated active program of training Citizens Defense Corps personnel in every State and city.
November 1941
During that month first consolidated reports from States showed over one million volunteers trained, or in training; first regionwide test blackout was held in OCD Region 1 was held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., and selection of (New England); final definitive test of warning devices approved type was made.
December 7, 1941
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
December 8, 1941
Director La Guardia announced establishment of Civil Air Patrol (CAP) under OCD. (In April 1943, CAP was transferred from OCD to War Department and operated as an auxiliary of the Army Air Force.) Note: CAP website states the CAP was born a week before the attack on Pearl Harbor.
January 3, 1942
Boy Scouts of America accepted assignment of messenger training; over one million messengers were trained for CD. American Water Works, American Hotel, and National Retail Dry Goods Association accepted assignments from OCD to recommend protection programs for their member institutions.
January 6, 1942
Special 10-day course for 150 Reserve and National Guard officers, assigned to regional and State offices, began at Edgewood Arsenal, Md.; conducted by Chemical Warfare and OCD officers.
January 12, 1942
James M. Landis, Dean of Harvard Law School, appointed Special Assistant to the President to devote full time to executive work of OCD.
January 27, 1942
Congress approved act to "provide protection of persons and property from bombing attacks in the United States," which authorized an appropriation not to exceed $100,000,000 to enable the Director of OCD to provide such protection.
January 28, 1942
First schools in emergency CD duties of regular police and duties of auxiliary police opened in 46 cities by FBI in cooperation with OCD.
January 31, 1942
Melvyn Douglas (Hesselberg), actor, named Director of OCD Art Council, to mobilize volunteer activities of Nation's writers, artists, musicians, and actors for Division of Civilian Participation program; served without compensation; resigned December 5, 1942, to enter Army.
February 4, 1942
Joint Committee on Evacuation (interdepartmental) created. (Apparently abolished prior to July 1, 1944. No reference to it after that date.)
February 10, 1942
La Guardia resigned as Director of OCD. (His last day in office was February 11, 1942.)
February 12, 1942
James M. Landis took over as Director of OCD.
February 21, 1942
Congress approved act appropriating $100,000,000 to OCD, specifying that no part of the money be used for "the employment of persons, the rent of facilities or the purchase of equipment and supplies to promote, produce or carry on instruction or direct instruction in physical fitness by dancers, fan dancing, street shows, theatrical performances or other public entertainment."
April 15, 1942
Executive Order 9134 expanded functions of OCD Director by authorizing him to maintain a clearinghouse of information on State and local defense activities in cooperation with appropriate Federal departments and agencies; and replaced both the Board of Civilian Protection and the Volunteer Participation Committee by a single Civilian Defense Board to advise and assist the Director. . . . James M. Landis received official appointment as Director of OCD at a salary of $10,000 a year.
May 19, 1942 Executive Order 9165 established Facility Security Division for protection of essential facilities from sabotage and other destructive acts, and placed responsibility for facility security program upon OCD.
May 28, 1942
War Emergency Radio Service (WEBS) authorized by Defense Communications Board (name changed to Board of War Communications by EO 9183, June 15, 1942) for civilian defense, Civi Airs Patrol, and State guard systems, to permit licensing for defense purposes limited number of amateur shortwave stations, all of which had been closed the first of the year for security reasons. By end of 1944, 250 licenses (covering 5,213 radio transmitters) were issued to civilian defense stations.
June 17, 1942
Conference on emergency CD Driver Training at Yale University launched program in which American Automobile Assn. trained 800,000 drivers for CD.
August 25, 1942
Landis named Liaison Officer to Civil Defense of Canada for coordination of policies, air raid signals, equipment, etc.
September 8, 1943
Director Landis resigned and recommended abolition of OCD. John B. Martin, deputy, became Acting Director.
October 4, 1943
War Department announced that Aircraft Warning Service would be placed on standby basis.
October 18, 1943
Executive Order 9389 expanded authority of OCD Director to permit him to provide for the internal organization and management of OCD, and to delegate authority to carry out his powers and duties to such agencies and officials as he might designate.
December 30, 1943
Six Army officers who had been section or unit chiefs in Protection Branch relieved to go overseas to organize Passive Air Defense for the invasion of Normandy, under SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces). Left in February 1944.
February 1944
Lt. Gen. William N. Haskell (Retired) assumed duties as Director of OCD.
April 1944
Gradual liquidation of OCD began.
April 18, 1944
Executive Order 9437 abolished Facility Security Program assigned to OCD by EO 9165.
July 1, 1944
OCD regional offices abolished.
November 3, 1944
U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey established, pursuant to Presidential directive, to study effects of air war over Germany with two objectives: help plan impending expansion of air war against Japan, and help assess and evaluate air power as a military instrument in the interest of future planning for national defense. (Resulted in Summary Report. (European War), GPO, 1945.)
May 4, 1945
President Truman signed Executive Order 9562 calling for termination of OCD on June 30, 1945.
May 8, 1945
Victory in Europe (V-E Day).
June 30, 1945
OCD abolished. This action was followed by the disbanding of most State and local civil defense organizations. All protective property acquired under act of January 27, 1942, and act of February 21, 1942, was transferred to Department of Commerce; liquidation of OCD fiscal affairs assigned to Treasury Department.
August 6, 1945
Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
August 9, 1945
Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki.
August 15, 1945
Victory in Japan (V-J Day) . . . . President Truman requested U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey to study effects of air war on Japan, particularly the effects of bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (Resulted in Summary Report (Pacific War), GPO, 1946.)
April 30, 1946
Provost Marshal General Study 3B-1, "Defense Against Enemy Action Directed at Civilians," concluded that atomic warfare did not eliminate the possibility of effective civil defense but, rather, increased its importance; that civil defense be considered an integral and essential part of national defense; that a national shelter program and other passive defense policies must be planned at once and continuously studied and updated; and that advance planning include: updated inventories of essential materials and facilities available, maintenance of reserve stockpiles of critical materials, studies of dispersal of facilities as well as emergency evacuation of civilians, and development of intelligence detection systems as well as warning systems.
June 1946
U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey issued special report: "The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki." Report is one of the earliest descriptions of the atomic bomb--how it works, its main effects (heat, radiation, blast), and how it compares with conventional weapons; suggested immediate planning for action in four areas: (1) shelters and construction, (2) decentralization, (3) civilian defense, and (4) active defense. "Shelters and construction" envisaged not only a national shelter program, but also modification of new construction to make buildings more blast- and fire-resistant.
November 25, 1946
War Department Memorandum 400-5-5 (signed by Chief of Staff Dwight D. Eisenhower) established WD Civil Defense Board (Bull Board, headed by Maj. Gen. Harold R. Bull) to study problem of civil defense.
February 28, 1947
Report (then classified Confidential) of WD Civil Defense Board issued, and Board adjourned.
July 26, 1947
Public Law 253 (Unification Act) approved; law established National Security Resources Board (NSRB).
August 29, 1947
National Convention of American Legion at New York City adopted report of Legion's Civil Defense Commission, urging the President to establish a civil defense planning agency under direction of a civilian, and outlining minimum requirements for civil defense. This report, when presented to the President, became the basis for establishment of the Office of Civil Defense Planning.
January 13, 1948
Bull Board report declassified by authority of Secretary of Defense.
February 15, 1948
"A Study of Civil Defense," a pamphlet presenting conclusions and recommendations of the War Department Civil Defense Board (Bull Board), released to the public. It was first report on a civil defense program for the United States. . . . New York Times featured story on first page captioned: "Civilian Defense To Be Established--Forrestal to Set Up Interim Organization as Soon as He Can Find Suitable Head."
February 22, 1948
Russell J. Hopley, President, Northwestern Bell Telephone Company, asked by Secretary of Defense James Forrestal to organize and direct committee to plan for establishing civil defense organization for the Nation.
March 27, 1948
Mr. Forrestal created Office of Civil Defense Planning, with Mr. Hopley as director, within National Military Establishment (predecessor to the Department of Defense, which was established as an executive department by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (P.L. 81-216, approved August 10, 1949).)
October 1, 1948
Office of Civil Defense Planning submitted Hopley Report, "Civil Defense for National Security," to Secretary Forrestal. Released to the public November 13, 1948, The New York Times of November 14 carried feature story on page 1: "Civil Defense Plan Mapped Against Enemy Action." (Considered to be most detailed and complete plan available for setting up operational civil defense organization, including a peacetime organization to be used in natural disaster even though it may never be used for war.)
March 3, 1949
In memorandum to Acting Chairman John R. Steelman, the President assigned to National Security Resources Board primary responsibility for civil defense planning.
March 29, 1949
Acting Chairman of NSRB requested Director, Office of Mobilization Procedures and Organization, NSRB, to initiate a study of problems and submit a report.
June 3, 1949
Acting Chairman, NSRB, requested: (a) Administrator, Federal Works Agency (which became General Services Administration July 1, 1949) to assume responsibility for "wartime civil disaster relief planning," including activities and supplies, rescue, evacuation, demolition, regulation of transportation, communications, and restoration of order; (b) Secretary of National Defense to assume responsibility for planning civilian participation in active defense, including detection, observation, and identification of aircraft, air-raid-warning systems, border patrol, anti-aircraft defense, civil air patrol, camouflage, and protective construction.
June 6, 1949
NSRB Document 112, "A Report on Civil Defense Planning," transmitted by Acting Chairman to Federal departments and agencies for comment. (This was report requested March 29.)
August 1, 1949
Secretary Forrestal abolished Office of Civil Defense Planning and established Civil Defense Liaison Office. Lt. Col. (later Col.) Barnet W. Beers named as Assistant for Civil Defense Liaison.
August 23, 1949
General Services Administration submitted planning prospectus to Acting Chairman, NSRB.
September 1949
Department of Defense held "Operation Lookout" in 10 northeastern States to test air-defense plans. Exercise was sponsored jointly by Air Defense Command and Civil Defense Liaison Office (formerly Office of Civil Defense Planning).
September 23, 1949
President Truman announced that Russians had exploded their own atomic bomb in the Soviet Union.
October 5, 1949
A statement of policy for relations with State and local governments, the first in a series of Civil Defense Planning Advisory Bulletins (Doc. 121), sent by NSRB to all State Governors.
October 24, 1949
Senator Brian McMahon, Chairman, Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, announced that public hearings on problem of civil defense would be held early during next session of Congress.
December 1, 1949
The second of NSRB Civil Defense Planning Bulletins (Doc. 121/1) sent to all State Governors. Bulletin outlined Federal Government's objectives in planning, set forth information on planning activities in progress, made recommendations for State and local action, and requested information on specific questions relating to State civil defense programs.
January 13, 1950
NSRB Doc. 121/2, "Medical Aspects of Atomic Weapons," sent to all State Governors.
January 31, 1950
President directed Atomic Energy Commission to study possibilities of building thermonuclear (hydrogen) bombs.
February 3, 1950
NSRB Doc. 121/3, announcing training courses in radiological monitoring and medical aspects of civil defense against atomic attack, sent to all State Governors.
March 1, 1950
Paul J. Larsen appointed Director, Civilian Mobilization Office, NSRB.
March 3, 1950
Hearings on civil defense were begun by the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy and the Senate Armed Services Committee.
March 17, 20,
23,30, Apr. 3,1950
Hearings on civil defense continued by Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy.
March 23, 1950
Start of testimony on civil defense before Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy and Senate Armed Services Committee.
March 27, 1950
Radiological monitoring and medical and health courses sponsored by NSRB began; continued through July 1950.
April 10, 1950
Nomination of W. Stuart Symington as Chairman of NSRB confirmed by the Senate. (Took oath of office April 26.)
May 1, 1950
NSRB Doc. 121/4 transmitted to State Governor. Suggested course of action for States, described radiological and medical training activities, suggested approach to civil defense, and defined responsibility for civil defense planning.
May 18, 1950
NSRB Doc. 121/5, defining role of American Red Cross in civil defense, transmitted to all State Governors.
June 25, 1950
President Truman announced invasion of South Korea by North Korea.
June 29, 1950
Atomic Energy Commission disclosed that "great steps" had been achieved in developing the hydrogen bomb.

July 12, 1950
In letter to NSRB Chairman, Senator Estes Kefauver, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Civil Defense of the Senate Armed Services Committee, pointed out that "if it is humanly possible to do so, legislation in this field should be submitted to the Congress prior to September."
August 8, 1950
AEC issued "The Effects of Atomic Weapons," predecessor to "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons," which was issued in 1957 and revised in April 1962. (Book was prepared by Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and published by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. . . . Public Law 93-483 abolished AEC and created two new agencies, effective January 19, 1975: U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and Nuclear Regulatory Commission.)
September 8, 1950
Public Law 774, Defense Production Act of 1950, approved. . . NSRB Doc. 128, "United States Civil Defense" (Symington Report), proposing a national civil defense plan (then referred to as the "National Plan" or "The Blue Book"), transmitted to the President. (Exhibit C of Doc. 128 is proposed bill "To authorize a Federal Civil Defense Program and for other purposes.") . . . Paul J. Larsen resigned as Director of NSRB's Office of Civil Defense (formerly Office of Civilian Mobilization); succeeded by James J. Wadsworth.
September 18, 1950
H.R. 9689, "To authorize "Federal Civil Defense Program," introduced in House of Representatives by Carl T. Durham (North Carolina) . . . . "National Plan" released to the press.
September 19, 1950
S. 4162, "To authorize a Federal Civil Defense Program," introduced in the Senate by Ernest W. McFarland (Arizona) and Brian McMahon (Conn.).
September 30, 1950
Public Law 875 (81st Congress), "To authorize Federal assistance to States and local governments in major authority to coordinate activities of Federal agencies in providing disaster assistance. . . . NSRB Doc. 128/1 transmitted to all State Governors. Discussed Mutual Aid disasters, and for other purposes," bested in President and Mobile Support Systems,with Critical Area Map of hypothetical State of Columbia.
October 18, 1950
NSRB Doc. 121/6 announced training courses for professional nurses.
October 29, 1950
NSRB Doc. 130, "Survival Under Atomic Attack," published; first of a series designed to instruct the public in individual protection against special weapons.
November 30, 1950
Revised bill (H.R. 9798, "To authorize a Federal Civil Defense Program") introduced in House of Representatives
by Congressman Durham; revised civil defense bill (S. 4219) introduced in Senate the next day by Senators Estes Kefauver (Tenn.) and Harry P. Cain (Wash.).
December 1, 1950
Executive Order 10186 created Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA) within Office for Emergency Management, Executive Office of the President. On same day President Truman appointed Millard F. Caldwell, Jr., former Governor of Florida, as Administrator, succeeding James J. Wadsworth, Acting Director, Civil Defense Office, NSRB. (Mr. Wadsworth was named Deputy Administrator.)
December 4, 1950
Hearings on proposed civil defense legislation were begun by the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, the Senate Armed Services Committee, and the House Armed Services Committee.
December 12, 1950 FCDA announced that model interstate civil defense and disaster compact had been submitted to all State Governors and civil defense directors as a legal basis for mutual aid and mobile support among the States in the event of enemy attack. It applied particularly to use of fire, police, medical, and rescue personnel and equipment.
December 13, 1950
NSRB Doc. 132, "Fire Effects of Bombing Attacks," released. Prepared for NSRB by the Civil Defense Liaison Office and Office of the Secretary of Defense, booklet sent to all State Governors as background information on fire problem.
December 15, 1950
A basic code of public air raid warning signals, to be used by all States and cities in event of attack, announced by FCDA. The two-stage warning code--"Red Alert" and "All Clear"--was developed by a panel consisting of representatives of FCDA, the Department of Defense, State and city civil defense authorities, and sound engineers.
December 16, 1950
Executive Order 10193 established Office of Defense Mobilization within Executive Office of the President to direct, control, and coordinate all mobilization activities of the Government, including production, procurement, manpower, stabilization, and transport activities.
December 28, 1950
FCDA released a 248-page volume on "Civil Defense Health Services and Special Weapons Defense." Prepared for FCDA by Health Resources Office of NSRB with assistance and technical advice of number of Federal and private agencies, booklet gave detailed information required by State and local planners for civil defense health services against atomic, biological, and chemical warfare.
January 12, 1951
President Truman signed the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 (Public Law 920, 81st Congress), establishing FCDA as an independent agency in the executive branch of the Government.
January 17, 1951
Designation of certain amateur frequencies for civil defense use by licensed amateur radio operators, after any suspension of normal amateur activity, announced jointly by FCDA and Federal Communications Commission; made possible for State and local civil defense authorities to plan for utilization of Nation's amateur operators for civil defense purposes.
February 12, 1951
FCDA announced at a national meeting of State civil defense directors that matching Federal funds would be made available for construction of individual or family-type shelters, but that no contributions would be made for shelters outside critical target areas.
February 21, 1951
Meeting of United States and Canadian civil defense officials in Ottawa for further informal exploration of possible agreements on mutual civil defense problems. Discussions covered interstate-provincial and international mutual aid agreements, exchange of medical services, and standardization of civil defense supplies and equipment; also possible exchange of civil defense personnel between United States and Canada.
March 2, 1951
Executive Order 10221 authorized Housing and Home Finance Administrator to act for President in carrying out provisions of P.L. 875, to assist States and local governments in major disasters.
March 27, 1951 Canada and United States effected a civil defense mutual aid agreement.
April 5, 1951
First issue of THE CIVIL DEFENSE ALERT, official monthly publication of FCDA, distributed to all FCDA personnel and all CD staff members in States, cities, and territories to keep them currently and uniformly informed on civil defense activities, plans, and programs; and to help maintain the teamwork and morale essential to the FCDA program.
April 15,1951 First FCDA motion picture, "Survival Under Atomic Attack," released: 16mm, one-reel, sound, black and white; pro-
duced by United World Films, Inc., and distributed by
Castle Films.
April 28,1951
First meeting of Joint United States-Canadian Civil Defense Committee held in Washington, D.C. Eight Canadian representatives, headed by Paul Martin, Minister of National Health and Welfare, and six U.S. officials took part in conference.
April 30,1951
National Civil Defense Training Center opened at Olney, Md., consisting of Staff College for training in civil defense administration and operations, and Rescue School for training in rescue operations and related skills.
May 5, 1951
First FCDA Advisory Council (12 members) appointed by the President. Appointment of Council members was in accordance with section 102 of the Federal Civil Defense Act.
May 7-8, 1951
Civil Defense Conference, Washington, D.C.; called to mobilize organizational leadership of Nation to survival; attended by some 1,200 leaders of State and local civil defense organizations and representatives of about 300 national associations whose membership numbered over 50 million. A series of forums on civil defense organization, volunteer technical services, public education, health and welfare services, shelters, attack warning and communications, training, and other program activities were held during the conference.
May 24-25, 1951
First meeting of FCDA Technical Committee on Street and Highway Traffic held at Evanston, Ill., home of the Traffic Institute of Northwestern University, which FCDA had selected to develop the traffic training program. Matters concerning regulation and control of traffic in relation to CD were considered.
June 6, 1951
FCDA Eastern Training Center established at Olney, Md. This was in addition to Staff College and Rescue School established April 30, 1951.
June 14, 1951
FCDA released summary of system to be used for determining amount of shelter from atomic attack needed in a given area and amount of suitable shelter space available in existing buildings in that area. A conference to discuss system was held at FCDA Staff College, June 14-15, 1951. Among conferees were State engineers, Staff College technicians, and representatives of the Bureau of the Census and Lehigh University Institute of Research. Release of system for determining shelter in existing buildings marked the first phase of the shelter program.
June 22, 1951
FCDA announced distribution to State and local directors of an illustrated bulletin containing a suggested organizational pattern for the communications section of municipal control centers, to be used as official guide.
July 2, 1951
Second meeting of FCDA Technical Committee on Street and Highway Traffic held at Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Committee reached agreement on overall objectives of traffic handling during CD emergencies.
July 3, 1951 FCDA announced distribution to State and local directors of bulletin covering plans and specifications for civil defense attack warning systems. Bulletin set forth specifications and methods for installing well-engineered and economical attack warning systems, and included tables and charts for determining area coverage of sound devices, with map showing layout of a public sound warning system for a typical city.
July 13, 1951
First course for local civil defense instructors in midwestern States opened at Oklahoma A&M College, Stillwater, Okla. This was first training center for local instructors in the country, and continued operating for about one year. (Closed August 15, 1952.)
July 27, 1951
Manual on "Shelter from Atomic Attack in Existing Buildings," sent to State and local civil defense directors; provided method for determining census of persons in given locations and uniform evaluation of shelter space in existing buildings.
August 2, 1951
James J. Wadsworth, Deputy Administrator, announced that St. Mary's College of California, strategically located about 20 miles east of the San Francisco Bay area, had been selected as the Western Training Center of FCDA. (Center opened Sept. 4, 1951; discontinued Sept. 1953.)
September 9, 1951
FCDA Emergency Welfare Services Advisory Committee concluded its first meeting, a 2-day session. During meeting Committee reviewed welfare problems before and after an attack, including emergency shelters, food supply, emergency mass feeding, personal identification, notification of next-of-kin, and post-disaster legislation.
September 13, 1951
FCDA announced that five States (California, Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, New York) would share in the initial allocation of funds from a $20,000,000 Congressional appropriation for civil defense first aid stations and stockpiling of medical supplies and equipment.
September 20, 1951
FCDA released Advisory Bulletin No. 69 to furnish advice and guidance to States regarding a uniform method of issuing identification tags for civilians.
October 26, 1951
Initial meeting of new group, Advisory Council for Women's Participation, held at FCDA building (Gelmarc Towers), 1930 Columbia Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. Its mission was to assist Mrs. John L. Whitehurst, Assistant Administrator, in alerting and organizing American women for civil defense.
November 2, 1951
Beginning of Massachusetts Regional Project, a laboratory study of urban area target analysis and State and regional plan, cooperatively undertaken by FCDA, City of Boston, State of Massachusetts, and the Armed Forces.
November 9, 1951
FCDA published Advisory Bulletin No. 79, informing State directors of location and geographic boundries of nine regional offices:
Region 1, Boston Mass. (New Jersey, New York, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire, Mass., Conn, Rhode Island);
Region 2, Richmond, Va. (Pa., W. Va., Del., Md., North Carolina);
Region 3, Atlanta Ga. (Tenn., Miss., Ala., Ga., South Carolina, Florida);
Region 4, Cleveland, Ohio (Mich., Ohio, Kentucky);
Region 5, Chicago Ill. (Ind., Ill., Wis., Iowa, Minn., North Dakota, South Dakota);
Region 6, Dallas Tx. (Tex., Okla., Ark., La.);
Region 7, Denver, Col. (Wyo., Col., New Mexico, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri);
Region 8, Berkeley, Cal. (Cal., Nev., Utah, Ariz.);
Region 9, Seattle, Wash. (Wash., Mont., Oregon, Idaho).
November 15, 1951
FCDA announced the original cartoon character "Bert the Turtle" as the "star" of "Duck and Cover," an FCDA cartoon film produced by Archer Productions, Inc., New York City, in cooperation with the aT tional Education Association and FCDA. A turtle was chosen as the star of a children's civil defense campaign because his ability to duck and cover into his shell illustrates the basic principle of self-protection.
November 29, 1951
America's butchers, bakers, grocers, and milkmen called upon by FCDA and the Department of Agriculture to help set up immediate plans for nationwide emergency civil defense feeding in event of attack. Call for help was in form of an announcement that FCDA and USDA had reached agreement on detailed plans to provide adequate food for the Nation under emergency attack conditions.
December 2, 1951
A 16-page illustrated booklet, "Duck and Cover," issued by FCDA for distribution by the States and territories. Three million copies were sent out.
December 9, 1951
FCD Administrator Millard Caldwell, on completion of his first year in office (appointed Dec. 1, 1950), announced that over a million and a half volunteers were on guard as part of the growing homefront army for civil defense.
December 10, 1951
Communications experts from throughout the Nation joined FCDA officials in a 6-day session to discuss technical details of a communications system for civil defense in a national emergency. The meeting, devoted chiefly to use of radio facilities, was held at FCDA Staff College, Olney, Md. Among the 120 delegates were representatives of 19 associations and such organizations as the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Western Union, Motorola, General Electric, and Radio Corporation of America.
December 16, 1951
FCDA established new office of volunteer manpower for recruiting. Mrs. John L. Whitehurst of Baltimore, Md., appointed Assistant Administrator in charge of its activities. Previously, Mrs. Whitehurst had served as Assistant Administrator in charge of Women's Participation. Purpose of new office was to "afford the necessary impetus and coordination essential to increase public participation in recruitment of additional volunteers for the growing U.S. Civil Defense Corps."
January 5, 1952
FCDA launched series of nationwide radio programs to promote civil defense organizations in the country, featuring officials of FCDA, Atomic Energy Commission, and top senatorial and military leaders.
January 7, 1952
"Alert America" Convoy Exhibit opened to public at Interdepartmental Auditorium, Constitution Ave., Washington. Exhibit presented various aspects of civil defense and reasons why America needed a well-trained civil defense organization. After Washington showing, "Alert America" toured major U.S. cities to encourage public support and participation in civil defense. . . . National Civil Defense Advisory Council, created by President Truman, met in Washington to attend exhibit, to review first year's progress of FCDA, and to discuss plans for 1952.
January 9, 1952
State, territorial, and FCDA regional directors held 3-day conference at Wardman Park Hotel (now Sharaton Park), Washington, D.C., to map 1952 program. About 65 State representatives, 7 State deputies, 3 territorial, and 9 regional directors participated in discussions designed to present current policies of Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Defense, and FCDA. The 3 territorial directors represented Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico; Guam and Virgin Islands did not send representatives. Foremost on agenda were discussions on civil defense volunteer recruiting programs, which called for 17.5 million workers, or one out of every 12 Americans, to meet minimum manpower requirements throughout country. Top consideration also was given to grants-in-aid, fiscal relations between Federal and State governments, public information, and training and education of civil defense volunteers. Conference was open to members of press and radio.
February 4, 1952
FCDA Technical Training School opened at Ogontz, Pa.; reduced funds forced closing and move to Olney, Md., July 28, 1952.
April 17, 1952
Executive Order 10346 enjoined Federal departments and agencies to develop, in coordination with FCDA, civil defense emergency plans pursuant to sec. 302 of Public Law 920, the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950.
November 15, 1952
Mr. Millard F. Caldwell, Jr., resigned and Mr. James J. Wadsworth, formerly Deputy Administrator, designated Acting Administrator, FCDA.
January 16, 1953
Executive Order 10427 gave FCDA responsibility for providing assistance to localities stricken by major disasters under Public Law 875, and revoked Executive Order 10221, which had assigned responsibility to Housing and Home Finance Administrator.
March 4, 1953
Mr. (Frederick) Val Peterson, former Governor of Nebraska, sworn in as Administrator, FCDA.
March 13, 1953
Executive Order 10438 transferred certain functions of the National Security Resources Board to the Office of Defense Mobilization.
June 12, 1953 Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1953 established a new Office of Defense Mobilization which assumed functions of former ODM, the National Security Resources Board, and critical materials stockpiling functions formerly vested in the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Interior, and of the Army and Navy Munitions Board.
June 18, 1953
Executive Order 10461 redefined functions of ODM, as provided in Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1953, including functions of original ODM and those under the Defense Production Act of 1950.
August 5, 1953 FCDA Advisory Bulletin No. 146 announced revision of regional areas. For economic reasons, number of regions reduced to seven: Region 1, Boston, Mass. (No change.) Region 2, Philadelphia, Pa. (Pa., Del., Md., Va., W. Va., Ky., Ohio); Region 3, Atlanta, Ga. (N.C., S.C., Ga., Fla., Tenn., Ala., Miss.); Region 4, Chicago, Ill. (Ill., Ind., Wis., Minn., Iowa, N.D., S.D.); Region 5, Dallas, Tex. (N.Mex., Tex., Okla., Ark., La.); Region 6, Denver, Col. (Wyo., Col., Neb., Kansas, Mo.); Region 7, San Francisco, Cal. (Cal., Nev., Mont., Idaho, Utah, Ariz.,Wash.,Oregon).
April 22, 1954 Executive Order 10529 authorized FCDA to coordinate participation by Federal employees in State and local civil defense preemergency training programs.
September 1, 1954
FCDA moved to Battle Creek, Mich., leaving only a small liaison staff, including the Administrator, in Washington, D.C. Move included Staff College from Olney, Md., except Rescue School, which continued at Olney until its closing in 1958.
October 1, 1954
Except for Region 6, which remained near Denver, Col., FCDA regional offices moved to safer locations in keeping with national policy of locating civil defense headquarters outside areas of expected heavy damage: Region 1, Newton Center, Mass.; Region 2, West Chester, Pa.; Region 3, Thomasville, Ga.; Region 4, Joliet, Ill.; Region 5, Denton, Tex.; Region 6, Denver, Col.; Region 7, Santa Rosa, Cal. There were no changes in regional boundaries. (During 1955 Region 2 was moved to Olney, Md., and Region 4 to Battle Creek, Mich.)
February 15, 1955
In response to growing public demands, Atomic Energy Commission issued a press release describing fallout from a multimegaton thermonuclear device exploded by the United States at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954.
February 22, 1955
In light of newly disclosed fallout problem, the Subcommittee on Civil Defense (Senator Estes Kefauver, Chairman) of the Senate Armed Services Committee began a series of major hearings on the operations and policies of the Federal Civil Defense Program. (Hearings were continued through June 20.)
May 11, 1955
Executive Order 10611 established Civil Defense Coordinating Board, to assist in the development of an orderly, integrated plan for participation of all Federal departments and agencies in the civil defense of the Nation, and to report to the President on progress of such plan.
January-June 1956
The Subcommittee on Military Operations (Representative Chet Holifield, Chairman) of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, held major hearings on "Civil Defense for National Survival."
August 11, 1956
FCDA released "The National Plan for Civil Defense Against Enemy Attack," outlining Federal responsibilities and programs and suggesting plans for State and local organizations.
June 14, 1957
Mr. Val Peterson resigned and Mr. Lewis E. Berry designated Acting Administrator.
July 19, 1957
Mr. Leo A. Hoegh, former Governor of Iowa, sworn in as Administrator, FCDA, serving in that capacity until July 1, 1958, when he was named Director of the Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization, later redesignated Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (OCDM).
October 29, 1957
Executive Order 10737 expanded functions of FCDA in administering disaster relief under Public Law 875.
April 24, 1958
President Eisenhower sent Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 to Congress, transferring all responsibilities of the Federal Civil Defense Administrator and the Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization to the President, and consolidating FCDA and ODM into a new Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization in the Executive Office of the President. Plan was to become effective July 1, 1958.
May 7, 1958
FCDA announced five-point national policy on attack; (2) survey existing structures, mines, subways, (1) disseminate public information on effects of nuclear tunnels, etc., to determine protection factor; (3) accelerate research to determine how fallout protection might be incorporated in existing and new buildings; (4) construct limited number of prototype shelters; and (5) incorporate fallout shelters in appropriate new Federal buildings designed for civilian use.
June 9, 1958
FCDA Eastern Instructor Training Center opened at Manhattan Beach, Brooklyn, New York.
June 30, 1958
Rescue Instructor Training School, Olney, Md., closed; training in rescue operations transferred to Eastern Instructor Training Center.
July 1, 1958
Executive Order 10773 delegated to the Director, Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization, all functions transferred to the President by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958. (EO 10773 had the effect of transferring to the Director of new agency certain authorities delegated by Executive Orders 10219, 10242, 10260, 10296, 10312, 10346, 10421, 10427, 10460, 10480, 10494, 10524, 10529, 10560, 10590, 10601, 10634, 10638, 10655, 10660, 10700, 10705, and 10737. EO 10773 revoked Executive Orders 10224, 10276, 10293, 10350, 10475, 10611, and sec. 1.02 of 10480.)
August 8, 1958
Public Law 85-606 amended Public Law 920 to vest responsibility for civil defense jointly in Federal Government and the States and their political subdivisions, and to authorize: (1) financial contributions to States and their political subdivisions for necessary and essential personnel and administrative expenses, commonly referred to as the P&A program; (2)reimbursement toward expenses of students attending civil defense schools, known as the Student Expense Program.
August 26, 1958
Public Law 85-763 redesignated the organization as the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (OCDM). (Note: This was done to restore the "CD" identity.)
September 6, 1958
Exectutive Order 10782 amended Executive Order 10773 by deleting the words "Defense and Civilian Mobilization" and inserting therefor the words "Civil and Defense Mobilization," as authorized by Public Law 85-763.
October 1958
OCDM issued "The National. Plan for Civil Defense and Defense Mobilization."
March 1, 1959
By Interim Directive No. 45, dated February 27, 1959, OCDM established Region 8, Everett, Wash., with jurisdiction over Alaska, Wash., Oregon, Montana, Idaho. (Region 8 was moved to Bothell, Wash., in December 1968, upon completion of underground facility.)
November 1959 OCDM Western Instructor Training Center established at Alameda, Cal.
January 20, 1961
Mr. Leo A. Hoegh resigned as Director of OCDM. (For about one week after resignation, Mr. John S. Patterson, former Deputy Director, served as Acting Director; then Mr. Lewis E. Berry was designated Acting Director and served as such until appointment of new Director.)
March 9, 1961
Frank B. Ellis, former Governor of Louisiana, took oath of office as Director, OCDM.
May 25, 1961
President Kennedy, in a special message to the Congress, announced that under authority of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 he was assigning responsibility for civil defense to the top civilian authority already responsible for continental defense, the Secretary of Defense; and that the OCDM would be reconstituted as a small staff agency to assist in the coordination of these functions, under the name of Office of Emergency Planning. . . . In his message, President Kennedy stressed several key points: "One major element of the national security program which this Nation has never squarely faced up to is civil defense. . . Public consideration has been largely characterized by apathy, indifference, and skepticism . . . it cannot deter a nuclear attack. . . . We will deter an enemy from making a nuclear attack only if our retaliatory power is so strong and so invulnerable that he knows he would be destroyed by our response. If we have that strength, civil defense is not needed to deter an attack. . . . But this deterrent concept assumes rational calculations by rational men. And the history of this planet, and particularly the history of the 20th century, is sufficient to remind us of the possibilities of an irrational attack, a miscalculation, an accidental war. . . . It is on this basis that civil defense can be readily justifiable--as insurance for the civilian population in case of an enemy miscalculation. . . . Once the validity of this concept is recognized, there is no point in delaying the initiation of a nationwide long-range program of identifying present fallout shelter capacity and providing shelter in new and existing structures..."

June 3-4, 1961
President Kennedy conferred with Premier Khrushchev in Vienna on a number of international issues. . . . Berlin Crisis precipitated by Soviet demand for a Peace Treaty from Germany. Situation intensified, culminating in the Berlin Wall, which was started August 15, 1961.
July 20, 1961
Executive Order 10952, effective August 1, 1961, transferred to the Secretary of Defense certain civil defense functions under the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended, and retained in the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization functions which had formerly been assigned to the Office of Defense Mobilization and natural disaster functions under Public Law 875.
July 25, 1961
President Kennedy addressed Nation, describing threat of war brought on by Berlin Crisis, calling up certain reserve units to cope with threat, and asking Congress for $207 million for group fallout shelters that could save 10 to 15 million Americans who would otherwise perish in a nuclear attack. The President stressed need for civil defense, and ordered a full-scale step-up in efforts to inform and aid the public on methods of protection.
July 31, 1961
In a memorandum to the heads of the Defense agencies and military departments, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announced interim organization of the Office of Civil Defense, effective August 1, 1961, within the Department of Defense, and named Mr. Adam Yarmolinsky, Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, as the head of OCD until such time as a qualified successor could be named to assume that responsibility.
August 14, 1961
Executive Order 10958 delegated responsibility for civil defense food stockpiles to the Secretary of Agriculture, and for civil defense medical stockpiles to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.
August 30, 1961
Mr. Steuart L. Pittman named by President Kennedy to be Assistant Secretary of Defense (Civil Defense); confirmed by Congress September 15. (DoD Directive 5140.1 covered functions of ASD(CD).)
August 31, 1961
Soviet Union announced resumption of nuclear-bomb testing. Kruschchev boasted of a monster 100-megaton bomb which he claimed could destroy vast reaches of United States. (A 58-megaton bomb was actually tested by the Soviets.)
September 17, 1961
Civil Defense Committed of the Governors' Conference met with Secretary of Defense McNamara and Assistant Secretary Pittman to discuss plans for a nationwide survey of fallout shelters.
September 22, 1961
Congress approved Public Law 87-296, changing name of OCDM to Office of Emergency Planning.
October 17, 1961 Kruschchev intimated he would delay threat to take certain action in Berlin until end of year. International crisis escalated. Inquiries from public to OCD for information on self-protection reached unprecedented proportions.
December 1, 1961 Department of Defense news release announced initiation of National Fallout Shelter Survey (NFSS) to identify, license, mark with distinctive signs, and stock with essential food and other supplies suitable public fallout shelter space in existing structures, mines, caves, and tunnels throughout the United States. Directed by OCD and supervised by Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, work was done under contract by local architect-engineer firms.,. . . Also in December, OCD issued handbook (H-6) on "Fallout Protection--What to Know and Do About Nuclear Attack." Millions were distributed.
February 16, 1962 President Kennedy signed various Executive orders assigning to other departments and agencies certain emergency preparedness functions in fields related to their activities:
EO 10997, Secretary of the Interior
EO 10998, Secretary of Agriculture
EO 10999, Secretary of Commerce
EO 11000, Secretary of Labor
EO 11001, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
EO 11002, Postmaster General
EO 11003, Federal Aviation Agency
EO 11004, Housing and Home Finance Administrator
EO 11005, Interstate Commerce Commission
September 27, 1962 Executive Order 11051 prescribed responsibilities of the Office of Emergency Planning in the Executive Office of the President.
October 22, 1962 Newspapers around the country began to break story of possible crisis brewing in Cuba. President Kennedy addressed the Nation "on a matter of great urgency." . . . Again people began to think of survival, and civil defense offices throughout the country were besieged by calls and letters asking what to do in case of attack. Because of Cuba's proximity to the United States, the Cuban Missile Crisis created even more concern among the U.S. populace than had the Berlin Crisis a year earlier. During week of October 22-27 (Monday-Saturday), all public media centered on the crisis, civil defense, and related protective measures. Civil defense awareness, and particularly the need for shelter in the event of nuclear attack, reached its zenith during the Cuban Missile Crisis. . . . Shelter survey, marking, and stocking accelerated by OCD.
May 28, 1963 A Subcommittee of the House Committee on Armed Services (Edward Hebert, Chairman) began major hearings on the fallout shelter program and on proposed amendments to the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950. Hearings were concluded August 27, 1963.
March 27, 1964
The Alaskan Earthquake, one of the strongest in recorded history (8.4 plus on the Richter scale), occurred on Good Friday, March 27. Because of the extensive involvement of people, organizations, and governmental entities in emergency operations, the Alaskan Earthquake provided a classic operational exercise. Earth shocks, tidal waves, and fires--with attendant casualties-- produced a situation comparable in many ways to that which could be expected in a nuclear attack. All of the elements were there except radioactive fallout. When the earthquake struck, power went off almost immediately, including most communications networks. The OCD Warning Officer for Alaska, stationed at Elmendorf Air Force Base, provided the first official situation report to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Defense News Room in the Pentagon over the National Warning System (NAWAS) through OCD Public Information. . . . Members of Alaska's Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Services (RACES) were among the first to establish communications between key emergency control points, and worked closely with the OCD Warning Officer.
March 31, 1964
Mr. Steuart L. Pittman resigned as Assistant Secretary of Defense (Civil Defense).
April 1, 1964 (a) Effective April 1, 1964, Secretary of Defense transferred all functions assigned to him by EO 10952 to the Secretary of the Army, with authority to redelegate. (DoD Directive 5160.50, March 31, 1964, and Federal Register notice published April 10, 1964 (29 F.R. 5017).)

(b) Concurrently, Secretary of the Army established in his immediate office an Office of Civil Defense, headed by a Director of Civil Defense, redelegating to the Director of Civil Defense all functions assigned to the Secretary of the Army by the Secretary of Defense. (Also published in the Federal Register April 10, 1964, 29 F.R. 5017.)

(c) Mr. William P. Durkee named to serve as Director of Civil Defense, and sworn in by Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes on April 7, 1964.
December 1964
Office of Emergency Planning issued "The National Plan
for Emergency Preparedness." The plan set forth basic principles, policies, responsibilities, preparations, and responses of civil government to meet any kind of national defense emergency; and described role of the Federal Government, the States and their political subdivisions , and, as appropriate, nongovernmental organizations and individual citizens. The OEP "National Plan" superseded the OCDM "National Plan for Civil Defense and Defense Mobilization" of October 1958.
November 1, 1965
Eastern and Western Instructor Training Centers closed; activities combined with OCD Staff College, Battle Creek, Mich.
October 11, 1966
Executive Order 11310 (sponsored by Office of Emergency Planning) assigned emergency preparedness functions to the Attorney General.
December 31, 1966
Mr. William P. Durkee resigned; Mr. Joseph Romm designated Acting Director of Civil Defense, effective January 1, 1967.
March 1968
Office of Civil Defense released H-14, "In Time of Emergency--A Citizen's Handbook on Nuclear Attack . . . Natural Disasters." Millions of copies have been distributed. (In response to popular demand, a Spanish version (H-14-A) was released in November 1968.)
May 20, 1968
Mr. Joseph Romm named Director of Civil Defense by Secretary of the Army Stanley Resor in memorandum to his Chief of Staff, Under Secretary, Assistant Secretaries, the General Counsel, Director of Civil Defense, Chief of Information, Chief of Legislative Liaison, and the Administrative Assistant; designation authenticated by The Adjutant General on May 22, 1968.
October 21, 1968
Office of Emergency Planning redesignated by sec. 402 of Public Law 90-608 (82 Stat. 1194) as Office of Emergency Preparedness.
May 20, 1969
Mr. John E. Davis, former Governor of North Dakota, sworn in as Director of Civil Defense by Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird.
October 28, 1969
Executive Order 11490 (sponsored by Office of Emergency Preparedness) assigned emergency preparedness functions to various Federal departments and agencies; superseded previous Executive orders on subject.
December 31, 1970
Public Law 91-606, Disaster Relief Act of 1970, revised and extended Federal programs for relief from the effects of major disasters.
December 9, 1971
In letter to Secretary of the Army Robert A. Froehlke, OEP Director George A. Lincoln outlined plans for OCD participation in disaster operations.
January 5, 1972
OCD Director John E. Davis replied to December 9, 1971, letter from OEP Director Lincoln, agreeing to plans proposed in letter to the Secretary of the Army.
February 18, 1972
OEP Director Lincoln wrote to OCD Director Davis in furtherance of proposal discussed in previous correspondence and enclosed a paper setting out "Policies and Procedures for Performance of Civil Defense Related to Local Government Preparations for Major Disasters."
March 8, 1972
OCD Director Davis acknowledged assignments made to OCD in paper forwarded by OEP Director with letter of February 18, 1972, and assured full cooperation of OCD with OEP in carrying out mutual responsibilities.
May 5, 1972
Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird established independent DoD agency, Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, headed by a Director reporting directly to the Secretary of Defense. John E. Davis continued as Director. Office of Civil Defense abolished. (DCPA charter covered in DoD Directive 5105.43, "Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA).")
January 1973
Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 proposed abolishment of Office of Emergency Preparedness as of June 30, 1973, with transfer of responsibilities to HUD (disaster functions), GSA (certain functions under Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 and Defense Production Act of 1950), and Treasury (import investigations under Trade Expansion Act of 1962).
February 1, 1973 DCPA established two regional suboffices:
DCPA Region One Suboffice: New York City; responsible for New York, New Jersey.
DCPA Region Six Suboffice: Kansas City, Mo.; responsible for Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska.

Kentucky transferred from Region 4 to Region 3

Ohio transferred from Region 2 to Region 4

Utah transferred from Region 7 to Region 6
June 27, 1973
Executive Order 11725, effective July 1, 1973, transferred functions of the Office of Emergency Preparedness to HUD, Treasury, and GSA. All delegations previously issued by President to OEP were to remain in effect until superseded or canceled by succeeding agencies.
July 1973 As authorized by Executive Order 11725:

(a) Federal Disaster Assistance Administration (FDAA) established by Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to administer natural disaster functions.

(b) Office of Preparedness (OP) established by Administrator, General Services Administration, to develop and coordinate civil preparedness policies and plans. (Note: Effective July 1, 1975, name changed by GSA to Federal Preparedness Agency.)
December 10, 1973
Executive Order 11749, "Consolidating Disaster Relief Functions Assigned to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development." Sec. 3 established National Council on Federal Disaster Assistance, composed of HUD (Chairman) and representatives from DoD (Army and DCPA), Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, HEW, Transportation, Small Business Administration, and Office of Economic Opportunity. Superseded Council established by EO 11526; also superseded EO 11526, 11575, 11662, 11678, and sec. 1 of EO 11725.
January 1974
First issue of FORESIGHT, a bimonthly news magazine, published by DCPA. Distributed to Congressmen, other Federal agencies, State and local officials, industrial and civic organizations, and foreign civil-defense counterparts, FORESIGHT serves as a forum for exchange of information on preparedness for all types of emergency situations.
February 1974
In his FY 1975 report to Congress, Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger stated: "The Federal Government must continue to meet its responsibilities under the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950--to provide leadership, guidance, and assistance to the State and local governments. Development of civil defense capabilities, which are essential to our national security, also generates, as a bonus, an improved readiness on the part of State and local governments to conduct coordinated operations in peacetime emergencies and disasters.
May 22, 1974
Public Law 93-288, Disaster Relief Act of 1974, repealed the Disaster Relief Act of 1970 (P.O. 91-606 as amended by P.L. 92-385) except sections 231, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 301, 302, 303, and 304. Provisions of P.L. 93-288 were retroactive to April 1, 1974.
July 11, 1974 Executive Order 11795, "Delegating Disaster Relief Functions Pursuant to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974," effective May 22, 1974, to:
(1) Secretary, Housing and Urban Development, with authority to redelegate to head of any agency of executive branch all powers vested in President, except sections 202c, 301, 313, 401, 409, and 412;
(2) Secretary of Defense, provisions of section 202c concerning utilization of Federal civil defense communications system for disaster warnings; and
(3) Secretary of Agriculture, all authority under sec. 409 concerning food coupons and distribution.
November 6, 1974
DCPA Director Davis signed "Statement of Understanding Between Federal Disaster Assistance Administration and Defense Civil Preparedness Agency." Statement continued assignments previously made by Office of Emergency Preparedness to Office of Civil Defense.
January 1975
The January-February issue of FORESIGHT featured article by Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger in which he defined "Civil Defense Programs--Roles and Missions." In this article, Secretary Schlesinger emphasized that: "The civil defense program is an integral part of the United States' effort to ensure peace. it also provides many domestic benefits. . . . The Department of Defense reaffirms the need for a viable and vigorous civil defense program. Over the years, this need has not diminished. The civil defense program is, and will remain, an integral part of our total national security effort. It is the responsibility of all government officials--Federal, State, and local--to support this program in achieving its basic objective--the protection of our citizens in time of emergency."
March 18, 1975
In letter to President of the U.S. Civil Defense Council, President Ford stated: "I am particularly pleased that civil defense planning today emphasizes the dual use of resources. Through development of the capability to support and assist our citizens in time of war, we are also improving our ability to respond to humanitarian needs during natural disasters. . . . The basic goal is the same--to save lives. No goal imposes a higher priority."

Compiled by Mary U. Harris, Information Services, DCPA, February 7, 1975, with the help of Carol Wanner, White House Office Library, formerly the library of Office of Emergency Preparedness and predecessor agencies, including the National Security Resources Board (NSRB) and the Office for Emergency Management, Executive Office of the President, within which the World War II Office of Civilian Defense was established. . . . Reprinted July 1, 1975, with additional "events."
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